Monday, May 25, 2020

Ancient Babylonia - 1189 Words

When studying Ancient Babylonia it is notably important to look at these factors: daily life, religion, people, society, government and economy so we can determine the development of the civilization and how it is similar to the way we live today. The Babylonian Empire is unique because their government was run by a law known as the Code of Hammurabi similarly are government is run by numerous laws. Their knowledge of science and astrology is intriguing due to the fact that they were the first civilization to form the basis of the sixteen month of thirty days calendar, their discovery of the calendar lend us to the calendars we have today. In addition to government, science and astrology their economy was very modern and played an immense†¦show more content†¦They also had a list of magical stones to develop their knowledge of mineralogy. Map mating was a very known science to the Babylonians most of them were experienced in it which made them more aware of there surrounding . Babylonians drew maps of local areas such as field plans, estates plans, grounds plants of temples and houses as well as maps of more distant regions such as larger areas: districts and towns. Their maps were drawn mostly in straight lines, with little attention to scale, angles and orientation. Most of the sciences they began to study and explore are the same sciences that we are going into today. The Babylonians have built the foundation for us and we used that and are building the rest. brbrMathematics was just as important to the Babylonian as it is to us. They however calculated things entirely different from us. A prime example of this is their number system which had two disadvantages: (1) it was confusing and, therefore, not used in many daily economic activities (2) there was no special sign for zero, to separate the different units, so they would leave two blank spaces for zero or by using a special sign that indicated a space between two words. Babylonian mathematicians developed a mastery of algebraic skill, even though there was no graphic symbol for the unknown. Instead they invented a method called false value. Babylonians alsoShow MoreRelatedThe Code Of Hammurabi Code896 Words   |  4 PagesIn 1750 B.C. a new king of babylonia arose by the name of Hammurabi. He continued his reign up until 1792 B.C. but most importantly his reign did not go unforgotten. During his reign he was in charge of giving punishments to the wrongdoings of his citizens. As he conquered other cities and his empire grew he saw the need to unify groups he controlled, he was concerned about keeping order in his kingdom. In order to achieve this goal, he needed one universal set of laws for all the people he conqueredRead MoreEssay on The History of Babylonian Mathematics1569 Words   |  7 PagesThe History of Babylonian Mathematics The history of ancient Babylonia is really long, but this essay is a short and to the point summery of the entire history. The history of Babylonia started near the end of the year 2000 BC, when invaders were attacking the Sumer kingdom. Sumer was a powerful kingdom in the western part of Asia, and it some what occupied what would become Babylonia. After the kingdom of Sumer was destroyed the city-states of Larsa and Isin came into settle on the landRead MoreBabylonians and the Contributions to Math1605 Words   |  7 PagesEssay #1: History The history of ancient Babylonia is really long, but this essay is a short and to the point summery of the entire history. The history of Babylonia started near the end of the year 2000 BC, when invaders were attacking the Sumer kingdom. Sumer was a powerful kingdom in the western part of Asia, and it some what occupied what would become Babylonia. After the kingdom of Sumer was destroyed the city-states of Larsa and Isin came into settle on the land once occupied by Sumer. ThisRead MoreBabylon As A Great Civilization1473 Words   |  6 PagesBabylon was a great civilization which at one time could have ruled the world. The name Babylon means â€Å"Gate of God†. Babylon was located in an ancient region surrounded by the Tigris and Euphrates River. This great civilization first initiated around 3500 BC and began to crumble after the year 323 BC. The Babylon culture was successful because of the advanced citizens, cultural cities, their technology, and legal systems. Babylon w as home to 10,000 to 40,000 Babylonians. This paper will talk aboutRead MoreThe Death Of A Man1058 Words   |  5 Pageshe offered laws that helped balance fairness to each class. Gender clearly had a role in the society as shown in the Hammurabi Code. Unfortunately, during this time, Women were considered inferior and needed the society to help guide them. In the ancient world, women were expected just marry and give birth to children so that population remains in control. Other than that, women were considered properties. This law shows that to be consider a wife, the women must have sexual intercourse with a manRead MoreLaws and Rituals throughout History Began with the Code of Hammurabi1361 Words   |  6 Pagesor poorly maintained irrigation ducts. Laws play a major role in the expansion of a nation. Justice is the upholding of those laws from an impartial standpoint. King Hammurabi managed to organize one of the first best preserved set of laws from ancient Babylonian times. The Code of Hammurabi was recorded on clay tablets standing eight feet high and written in cuneiform. The laws consisted of 282 provisions arranged under a variety of subjects ranging from family and personal property to tradeRead MoreComparison of Mesopotamia and the Indus Civilization2695 Words   |  11 PagesMesopotamia, also known as, the land between the rivers, was named for the triangular area between the Tigris and the Euphrates river, (Nov. 7 lecture). In recent use, it covers a broader area referring to most of what is now Iraq. This adds ancient Assyria and Babylonia to the scope of Mesopotamia (Schultz and Lavenda 1995:310). Parts of Mesopotamia were not inhabited at all until approximately 8000 BC when plants and animals were domesticate d, bringing about an agricultural revolution. This allowed nomadsRead MoreComparison and contrast of Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley1508 Words   |  7 Pagesearliest civilizations in the world. Mesopotamia, also known as, the land between the rivers, was named for the triangular area between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers. This area has been extended and now covers modern day Iraq, adding ancient Assyria and Babylonia to that land. The Indus civilization is often referred to as the Harappan civilization from the first city discovered called Harappa. The Indus civilization existed in the vast river plains of what are now Pakistan and northwestern IndiaRead More2. Language . The Tower Of Babel Is Symbolic Of The Fundamental1861 Words   |  8 Pagesonly preserve unity if that is God’s plan. Even this looming, powerful structure pales in comparison to the greatness that God can accomplish, i.e. Humans can never reach the awesomeness and power of God. 3. Author Genesis is composed of three ancient sources, J (Yahwist), E (Elohist) and P (Priestly) (Interpreter’s Concise Commentary, 3). Out of the sources, J is thought to be oldest, originating around 950 B.C., E originating in 750 B.C. and P in 539 B.C. (ICC, 3). J is noted for its connectionRead MoreThe Code of Hammurabi Essay1110 Words   |  5 Pagespenalties rather than the laws themselves. Laws play a major role in the expansion of a nation. Justice is the upholding of those laws from an impartial standpoint. King Hammurabi managed to organize one of the first best preserved set of laws from ancient Babylonian times. The Code of Hammurabi was recorded on clay tablets standing eight feet high. The laws consisted of 282 provisions arranged under a variety of subjects ranging from family and personal property to trade and business. These laws

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Some Good Open Questions For Seeking Feedback

Some good ‘open’ questions for seeking feedback are: ï  ¶ Were you happy with last action taken? ï  ¶ What you did not like? ï  ¶ What was the best part last time? ï  ¶ How do you think I could handle this better 3.4 Management performance is regularly reviewed against standards for the job One of the last steps of supervising management of the organisation is to review management performance against predetermined standards. Performance review comprises creating and agreeing on performance standards, comparing performance against these standards and taking appropriate action. Performance standards should be objective, measurable, realistic, and stated clearly. The standards should be written in such a way that will be used to assess performance.†¦show more content†¦How to review the performance? Following methods may be used to review the performance: Informal discussions The review process can be different for different circumstances. An informal approach may be where you regularly meet with your staff to give and receive feedback, provide advice and guidance, agree on priorities, and discuss day-to-day issues. Formal performance reviews Formal performance review usually involves more organised meetings, where short and long-term objectives and priorities are set, educational and improvement needs are determined, and performance issues are discussed. Outcomes of these more formal meetings and the associated outcomes are usually documented and reviewed by participants on a regular basis. Modern performance review systems focus on two-way dialogue, goal setting, employee development and regular consistent performance discussions. Some other methods, which also may be used to review the performance, could include: ï  ¶ Assessment against performance outcomes ï  ¶ Independent assessment ï  ¶ Interview As an organisation develops, the performance management issues become more complicated and a well-structured performance review is required. ï  ¶ Revising organisational goals and objectives ï  ¶ Determining individual performance goals and objectives in line with organisational goals and objectives ï  ¶ Consulting with staff and including them in the development phase ï  ¶ Establishing the purpose

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Formal Operational Thought Capacity Of Aa Mooney

This case study was undertaken to measure the formal operational thought capacity of AA Mooney (Not his real name). This participant is a twelve year old African American male in the seventh grade who attends middle school in Macon Georgia, but he is originally from Los Angles California. This case study is on the A B honor roll and plays football for his school. His parents are both educated and they are both in the home and are part of the middle socioeconomic class. This case study has one male sibling who is one year younger. Throughout his free time, mostly on weekends or after school, the participant enjoys playing a variety of video games on his play station, and shooting hoops in his backyard with his brother. Generally, my case†¦show more content†¦Unfortunately, not every adolescent develops into this stage â€Å"The stage of formal operations involves the development of hypothetical-deductive reasoning which is the capacity to think scientifically and apply the a ccuracy of scientific methods to cognitive task (Inhelder and Piaget, 1958).† Abstract thought, metacognition, meaning, thinking about thinking, and problem solving are the higher order thinking skills that appear in the formal operational stage. In this particular stage, the individual learns to develop assumptions that are not often grounded in actuality, such as hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Adolescents at this point in their development are moving from inductive to deductive reasoning. â€Å"Piaget and his colleagues developed an experiment called the â€Å"pendulum problem† with which they wanted to assess whether individuals had reached the formal operational stage. Classically, he had children balance a scale using different types of weights (Inhelder and Piaget, 1958).† It is only in early adolescence could children understand the connection between space or distance from the center of the scale and the mass of the weights. This method involves a leng th of string and a set of weights. AA was asked to take into consideration three factors; the length of the string, the heaviness of the weight, and the power of push. The assignment was to work out which factor was most important in defining the speed of swing of the pendulum. AA was able to change theShow MoreRelatedFormal Operations Synopsis. This Case Study Was Undertaken1339 Words   |  6 PagesFormal Operations Synopsis This case study was undertaken to measure the formal operational thought capacity of AA Mooney (Not his real name). This participant is a twelve year old African American male in the seventh grade who attends middle school in Macon Georgia, but he is originally from Los Angles California. This subject is on the A B honor roll and plays football for his school. His parents are both educated and they are both in the home and are part of the middle socioeconomic class. This

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Australian Banking Sector An Oligopolistic Market †Free Samples

Question: Discuss About The Australian Banking Sector An Oligopolistic Market? Answer: Introduction: In economics, the term market signifies a place of interaction for the two types of economic agents, the buyers and the sellers. In other words, a market is the place where the demand and the supply forces, in terms of their inter-dynamics, determine the price and quantity aspects of a particular commodity or service. Type of market prevailing for a product, depends on factors like number of buyers and sellers, the entry exit conditions for economic agents, market power dynamics and others[1]. Based on these influencing factors, markets can be competitive (perfectly competitive being the hypothetical extreme) of imperfectly competitive, like monopoly, monopolistic competition and oligopoly (monopoly being the opposite of perfect competition). The assignment tries to analyze the type of market structure prevailing in the Australian banking industry. For research purposes it takes the article named, Flush and Dominant, Australias Banks Come Under Pressure, written by A. Odysseus Patric k, as reference[2] Storys Essence: The article finds that the Australian banking market, four major players in the supply side categorically rule though having many players, both in the supply side and the demand side. In fact, these four politically supported and immensely influential banks majorly shadow all other banks. These four players are the Westpac Bank, the Commonwealth Bank, the Australia and New Zealand Banking Group and the Australias National Bank. Among them, two banks, the Westpac Corporation and the Commonwealth Bank, especially its CommInsure wing, are worthy of special mention when it comes to the consolidation of market power in the hands of the players in the Australian banking industry[3]. The high concentration of the market power in the hands of these four big banks in the Australian banking market, indicates the presence of a clear oligopolistic structure in the concerned market. These players have been enjoying tremendous control over the banking sector and its pricing and other decisions for a long time and this, according to the article, has given rise to many unfavorable and unfair issues, specially affecting those on the demand side[4]. The four banks tend to work apparently in a cartel construct in the recent times and do pose as a credible threat to the distribution of market power as they have the potential to join hands together and work as a collusive monopolistic unit in the market. The article puts forward the negative side of this oligopolistic construct in the banking industry of the country. Due to the presence of immense market power and substantial political support, most of these big players have been found to misuse their power to fulfill their vested interest of personal profit maximization even if that comes at the costs of sufferings of their clientele[5]. The article puts forward as an example of this misusing of power, the instances of CommInsure, where the unit avoided claims of insurances by deleting medical evidences, unfairly influencing the doctors and other fraudulent activities. Other banks like the Westpac, has also evidences of manipulating their interest rates and claims design according to situations, to benefit monetarily, putting their customers in financial crisis. The banks have also behaved strikingly rudely and unfairly with terminally ill people to get away without paying their medical claims as were previously promised by the banks[6]. All these have given rise to tremendous dissatisfaction among the demand side agents and has become a primary concern of the government of the country as customers are losing confidence over the banking sector of Australia. The government has undertaken several strict vigilance reforms, regulations and punishing steps, while many more reforms are required to bring back the welfare quotient and confidence of the customers on this concerned industry[7]. Economic Analysis of the Situation: The oligopoly market can be distinguished with the help of its inherent characteristic of many buyers and a few sellers, the sellers experiencing strategic interdependence on each other. This implies the strategies and outcomes of one seller in this market highly depend on the decisions of his fellow sellers. The market can have two outcomes: depending upon the situation there can be a price war or there can be formation of a collusive agreement among the participating sellers[8]. Figure 1 : Oligopoly Market (Source: As created by Author) Due to the presence of the kinked demand curve in the oligopolistic, which is in turn a result of non-identical and varying price elasticity, there arises a gap between the cost levels of production and the price charged by the firm for their products. The firms, being only a few, enjoy this advantageous position over the buyers, who, being many in number, creates substantial demand for the product, thereby helping the firm to charge a higher price for their product than that would have been charged in the competitive situation. The outcome becomes even more favorable for the sellers if they come to a cartel agreement, thereby ruling out price wars among them. Together they enjoy higher profits and higher market power provided they do not cheat, which is inherent characteristic of an oligopolistic cartel. The current situation of the Australian banking market can be indentified with this construct[9]. However, if the firms join hands to become a monopolistic working together, their cost and price gap can increase even more as is shown in the diagram below: Figure 2: Long run in the Monopoly Market (Source: As created by the author) In the monopoly market, due to the presence of the aggravated cost-price gap, in the long run also the firm enjoys economic profit. This can be a potential threat for the buyers in the banking market of Australia if the four big player join hands for a monopolistic construct. Recommendations: To rule out the problems faced by the consumers in the Australian banking industry and to prevent any other future threats of consolidation and misuse of market power to substantial extent by any of the participating agents, a stricter and regulatory environment has to be set up by the governing authorities of the country. This should incorporate unbiased vigilance and actions in case of defaulting by any of the players. New players should also be encouraged and provided with sufficient securities in face of the competition they will face from the big ones[10]. Conclusion: In presence of market imperfections and asymmetric information structure, the party with lack of information is bound to suffer. This makes free market condition more desirable. However, in absence of free markets, proper reform, regulations, restrictions and unbiased governance of a market can help in proper distribution of market power and welfare of the participating agents, thereby making the market more equitable. The Australian banking industry can also incorporate the above mentioned reforms to make the situation better for the buyer group. References Allen, David E., and Robert Powell. "The fluctuating default risk of Australian banks."Australian Journal of Management37.2 (2012): 297-325. Feng, Yuan, Baochun Li, and Bo Li. "Price competition in an oligopoly market with multiple iaas cloud providers."IEEE Transactions on Computers63.1 (2014): 59-73. Kavurmacioglu, Emir.Oligopolies in private spectrum commons: analysis and regulatory implications. Diss. Boston University, 2016. Maine, Bob. "The relentless pursuit of bank profits."Green Left Weekly1120 (2016): 2. Marshall, Robert C., and Leslie M. Marx.The economics of collusion: Cartels and bidding rings. Mit Press, 2012. Nytimes.com A, 'Flush And Dominant, AustraliaS Banks Come Under Pressure' (Nytimes.com, 2017) https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/15/business/dealbook/australia-banks-under-pressure.html?mcubz=1 accessed 29 August 2017 Rios, Manuel C., Campbell R. McConnell, and Stanley L. Brue.Economics: Principles, problems, and policies. McGraw-Hill, 2013. Tyers, Rod. "Service Oligopolies and Australia's Economy?Wide Performance."Australian Economic Review48.4 (2015): 333-356 [1] Rios, Manuel C., Campbell R. McConnell, and Stanley L. Brue.Economics: Principles, problems, and policies. McGraw-Hill, 2013. [2] A. Nytimes.com, 'Flush And Dominant, AustraliaS Banks Come Under Pressure' (Nytimes.com, 2017) https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/15/business/dealbook/australia-banks-under-pressure.html?mcubz=1 accessed 29 August 2017. [3] Maine, Bob. "The relentless pursuit of bank profits."Green Left Weekly1120 (2016): 2. [4] Allen, David E., and Robert Powell. "The fluctuating default risk of Australian banks."Australian Journal of Management37.2 (2012): 297-325. [5] Maine, Bob. "The relentless pursuit of bank profits."Green Left Weekly1120 (2016): 2. [6] Tyers, Rod. "Service Oligopolies and Australia's Economy?Wide Performance."Australian Economic Review48.4 (2015): 333-356. [7] Kavurmacioglu, Emir.Oligopolies in private spectrum commons: analysis and regulatory implications. Diss. Boston University, 2016. [8] Rios, Manuel C., Campbell R. McConnell, and Stanley L. Brue.Economics: Principles, problems, and policies. McGraw-Hill, 2013. [9] Marshall, Robert C., and Leslie M. Marx.The economics of collusion: Cartels and bidding rings. Mit Press, 2012. [10] Feng, Yuan, Baochun Li, and Bo Li. "Price competition in an oligopoly market with multiple iaas cloud providers."IEEE Transactions on Computers63.1 (2014): 59-73.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Australia Essays (1615 words) - Indigenous Peoples Of Australia

Australia AUSTRALIA Australia is an island continent located southeast of Asia and forming, with the nearby island of Tasmania, the Commonwealth of Australia, a self-governing member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The continent is bounded on the north by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea, and the Torres Strait; on the east by the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea; on the south by the Bass Strait and the Indian Ocean; and on the west by the Indian Ocean. The commonwealth extends for about about 2500 miles from east to west and for about 2300 miles from north to south. Its coastline measures some 22,826 miles. The area of the commonwealth is 2,966,150 square miles, and the area of the continent alone is 2,939,974 square miles, making Australia the smallest continent in the world, but the sixth largest country. The Commonwealth of Australia is made up of six states: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia; and two territories: the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. The external dependencies of Australia are the Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands, the Australian Antarctic Territory, Christmas Island, the Territory of Cocos Islands, the Coral Sea Islands Territory, the Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and Norfolk Island. The first Australians were the Aborigines. Aboriginal folklore claims that the Aborigines were always in Australia. However, most anthropologists believe that the Aborigines migrated from Southeast Asia at least 40,000 years ago, probably during a period when low sea levels permitted the simplest forms of land and water travel. A rise in sea level subsequently made Tasmania an island and caused some cultural separation between its peoples and those on the mainland. These original Australians were essentially hunter-gatherers without domesticated animals, other than the dingo, which was introduced by the Aborigines between 3000 and 4000 years ago. The Aborigines employed a type of firestick farming in which fire was used to clear areas so that fresh grazing grasses could grow, thereby attracting kangaroos and other game animals. Aborigines also may have harvested and dispersed selected seeds. Those widespread operations may have been responsible for extensive tracts of grassland. There is evidence of careful damming and redirection of streams and of swamp and lake outlets, possibly for fish farming. By the time of the first notable European settlement in 1788, Aboriginal people had developed cultural traits and ecological knowledge that showed an impressive adaptation to Australias challenging environments. They also had developed many complex variations between regional and even local communities. The total Aboriginal population at that time was about 300,000. More than 200 distinct languages existed at the beginning of the 19th century. Bilingualism and multilingualism were common characteristics in several hundred Aboriginal groups. These groups, sometimes called tribes, were linguistically defined and territorially based. During the first century of white settlement, there were dramatic declines in the Aboriginal population in all parts of the country. The declines resulted from the introduction of diseases for which the Aborigines had little immunity; social and cultural disruptions; and brutal mistreatment. By the 1920s, the Aboriginal population had declined to 60,000. Until the 1960s the Aboriginal population was mainly rural. Over the next two decades Aborigines began moving in greater numbers to urban areas. In many country towns, Aboriginal families were viewed negatively as fringe dwellers. In the larger cities, small, but highly volatile, ghetto like concentrations caused the Aborigines to begin demanding greater political rights. The Aborigines social and political status was so low that they were omitted from the official national censuses until 1971, following the overwhelming passage of a 1967 referendum that granted the government power to legislate for the Aborigines and to include them in the census count. At the 1991 census, 238,590 Australian residents were counted as Aborigines. More than 70 percent of the Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders live in urban areas. Traditional ways of life are still maintained in small enclaves in the more remote locations, especially in the north and center of the continent. Every region of the country is represented by its own Aboriginal land council, and most regions run cultural centers and festivals. A shared desire to reassert their claim to land rights has united the widely separated communities, and Aboriginality is

Monday, March 9, 2020

Understanding Usage of Generic Types in Delphi

Understanding Usage of Generic Types in Delphi Generics, a powerful addition to Delphi, were introduced in Delphi 2009 as a new language feature. Generics or generic types (also know as parametrized types), allow you to define classes that dont specifically define the type of certain data members. As an example, instead of using the TObjectList type to have a list of any object types, from Delphi 2009, the Generics. Collections unit defines a more strongly typed TObjectList. Heres a list of articles explaining generic types in Delphi with usage examples: What and Why and How on Generics in Delphi Generics with Delphi 2009 Win32 Generics are sometimes called generic parameters, a name which allows to introduce them somewhat better. Unlike a function parameter (argument), which has a value, a generic parameter is a type. And it parameterizes a class, an interface, a record, or, less frequently, a method ... With, as a bonus, anonymous routines and routine references Delphi Generics Tutorial Delphi tList, tStringList, tObjectlist or tCollection can be used to build specialized containers, but require typecasting. With Generics, casting is avoided and the compiler can spot type errors sooner. Using Generics in Delphi Once you’ve written a class using generic type parameters (generics), you can use that class with any type and the type you choose to use with any given use of that class replaces the generic types you used when you created the class. Generic Interfaces in Delphi Most of the examples I’ve seen of Generics in Delphi use classes containing a generic type. However, while working on a personal project, I decided I wanted an Interface containing a generic type. Simple Generics Type Example Heres how to define a simple generic class: typeTGenericContainerT classValue : T;end; With the following definition, heres how to use an integer and string generic container: vargenericInt : TGenericContainerinteger;genericStr : TGenericContainerstring;begingenericInt : TGenericContainerinteger.Create;genericInt.Value : 2009; //only integersgenericInt.Free;genericStr : TGenericContainerstring.Create;genericStr.Value : Delphi Generics; //only stringsgenericStr.Free;end; The above example only scratches the surface of using Generics in Delphi (does not explain anything though - but above articles have it all you want to know!). For me, generics were the reason to move from Delphi 7 / 2007 to Delphi 2009 (and newer).

Saturday, February 22, 2020

IT Governance Project in Geneva Industrial Services Essay

IT Governance Project in Geneva Industrial Services - Essay Example This case study of The Geneva Industrial Services (Services Industriels de Genà ¨ve, SIG) gives a good example of the IT Governance project. SIG is a state-owned organisation that renders services in electricity, gas, heating, energy and drinking water supplying; as well as in used water and waste processing and improvement, and telecommunications. This IT Governance case study is focused on the innovative electricity Distribution Management System (DMS), introduced in the organisation. The case study is based upon the project presentation of Glassey at the e-CASE International Conference in Singapore (Glassey 2009) and on the report describing the SEAM method, which is laid at the heart of the SIG’s DMS (Wegmann et al. 2008). IT Governance is ‘a framework for the leadership, organisational structures and business processes, standards and compliance to these standards, which ensure that the organisation’s IT supports and enables the achievement of its strategies and objectives’. As it was mentioned above, this IT Governance project in SIG was mostly aimed at the reorganisation of processes and systems in order to separate distribution and commercialisation activities in the company’s electricity distribution management system (DMS). This in its turn would enable the company to comply with the new Swiss law (Glassey 2009). In the area of electrical and electronic technologies the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the leading organization for international standards.